Green Infrastructure: Engineering to Benefit Business and Biodiversity

Green infrastructure – nature-based engineered solutions for environmental management — is versatile, beneficial and well-suited to corporate properties of all types. And when designed with biodiversity in mind, it creates an opportunity for a range of co-benefits. Yet many green infrastructure projects are completed without considering biodiversity.

This white paper from the Wildlife Habitat Council demonstrates the simplicity of considering the biodiversity potential of any green infrastructure effort through the examples of five different corporate case studies. The highlighted projects consider biodiversity in their design and, in doing so, provide solutions to corporate land managers as well as value beyond the engineered solution.

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Meet the local farmers who’re giving their crops away

Colin Templeton farms close to 100 acres on his Maki Road property and donates all of the crops to the local food bank. They plan on growing, harvesting, packaging and distributing 1,200 to 1,500 hampers of food to some of the most needy families in our community.

For more information, to donate, or to volunteer at the Food Bank Farm, visit

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Northern farmers donating entire crop to soup kitchen, ‘It’s been really rewarding’

Turnips are part of the first of two donations the Food Bank Farm is making to the Sault Ste. Marie Soup Kitchen Community Centre.

Colin Templeton and his partner Isabelle Trottier-Saucier started as market gardeners last year, before deciding to become a full time food bank farm this season.

“Every week there would be some left over at the end of the market and we would take that food and donate it to the food banks,” said Templeton. 

“We saw how a large amount of food that was donated on the weekend could just disappear in the matter of a day or two. It really brought home the tremendous need we have in the community.”

Templeton estimates they will donate seven to 10 tonnes of food this year; helping roughly 100 families a week.

“A lot of times we don’t get donations like this,” said Greg Boissoneau, a Soup Kitchen volunteer.

“A lot of vegetables we get we have to buy, purchase from good food box. Usually for good food boxes they do up once a month, and the only vegetables we get is what is left over from those ‘Good Food boxes’.”

The food bank farm is a full acre of vegetables.

It’s located next to Templeton’s home, but Trottier-Saucier works many hours planting and tending to the garden to provide local families with fresh food.

“The more food comes out of the field, the more we bring to the food bank and to the soup kitchen, the more the momentum picks up and it’s been really rewarding,” Trottier-Saucier said.

Templeton said this is the first food bank dedicated farm in the entire country. He estimates it will cost $10,000 to operate for the season, and he said more support from the community will be needed if this venture is to continue.

“Businesses are coming forward with financial donations to help us out and things like that, so those are all really key to making this a success, but also really key to making it a true community project and that’s really what we want to do,” he explained.

The partners say community members continue to contact them to donate their time and money to help the project.

Currently, they’ve raised half of the money they will need to keep the food bank farm running for the season.

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Local Hunger

“Too little food and insufficient nutritious food affects the health and well being of people in Algoma. Hungry Children do not learn well and hungry adults do not function as well as they could on the job or as parents.” To learn more the following article describes food insecurity in the Algoma Region.

Each year the Ontario Association of Food Banks provides an analysis of food bank use statistics, demographics, and the challenges of poverty and hunger in the province. To learn more, follow this link.


There is a great deal of waste in commercial farming. Vegetables with blemishes, sizes that are too small or large, or unusual shapes are often deemed unsuitable for retail sale and are not harvested. Food Banks in many communities organize volunteers to harvest this food that would otherwise be discarded. This is perhaps the most common way that fresh produce currently finds its way to food banks. Recently however, there has been a trend towards farming specifically for food banks. It is difficult to know with certainty, but the Food Bank Farm here in Sault Ste Marie, may be the first Canadian example of this new approach. To learn about food bank farms in the United States, check out this article:

Bees are important pollinators on our farm, and the successful production of many vegetables is dependant upon their activity. Unfortunately, bee populations are declining all over the world. At the Food Bank Farm we are doing our part by avoiding the use of pesticides that have been linked to bee decline, and by planting flowers on the farm to support biodiversity and provide a food source for our bee population. In the future, if donations support us, we would like to add bee hives on the property. For more information on Bee Decline, please see this article.

Maple syrup is a product that we have been making on the farm every spring for many years now. The volume of syrup that we are able to produce is very small, often only 25-30 litres in a season. With the start of the Food Bank Farm we have decided to sell some of our syrup and use the funds to help support the operation of the farm. A few years ago, I wrote this brief article that describes the process of making maple syrup.
{{Link to Maple Syrup Article}}

Spring is a sweet season for my daughter Dayna and me

As spring arrives, the days start to lengthen, and warmth returns to the sunshine. The re-awakening of the forest after its slumber through the cold winter months marks a special time of year for our family: It is time to make maple syrup. The craft of syrup making is an intergenerational activity, passed down from my father-in-law, who first made syrup in New Brunswick. And I’ve passed the activity onto my daughter, Dayna, who now helps me make syrup on our small farm in Sault Ste. Marie.

On our farm, syrup making is a traditional enterprise. No reverse-osmosis equipment, pipelines or vacuum systems anywhere in sight. Instead, tucked away in the roof of the barn are stacks of buckets, lids and spiles. After a good washing to remove any accumulated dust, the equipment is loaded onto my daughter’s toboggan, and a pair of snowshoes adorns my feet. At this point, I’m mandated to give both my daughter and the equipment a ride out to the “deep dark forest” that is our backyard woodlot. I’m encouraged with the occasional “mush!” or “giddy-up!”

We have about 220 tap-able trees on the property, but I tap about 70 in any given year, allowing the trees two years of rest in between. While this isn’t necessary, I think it’s a good way to ensure the health of the trees, and in an average year, 70 taps will produce an abundance of sap. Tapping a tree is quite easy. I use a cordless electric drill to drill a 3/8” hole about three inches deep into the tree on a slight upward angle. A tree should be about 12 inches in diameter or larger to be tapped, and large trees can be tapped with two or three holes.

The first year I tapped, I made the holes at a comfortable working height on the tree (mid-chest height). Mistake! By the time the snow melted, the buckets were suspended about six feet in the air! Being wiser now, I drill the tap holes about 18 inches above the snow line, so the buckets can be hung without my needing a ladder to collect sap in late spring.

My daughter and I take turns drilling holes and hammering (tapping) the metal spiles into the trees. A spile is a metal tube that allows the sap to flow out of the tree. It has a hook that the bucket hangs from. Once the holes are drilled, the spiles are tapped, and the buckets and lids are hung, the waiting begins.

The sap flows on days when the daytime temperature rises above freezing (10 C. seems ideal). The sap drips into the buckets, and on a quiet and warm day you can hear drip, drip, drip all around you in the woodlot. For the sap to flow, the temperature must drop below freezing at night. Why you might ask? During the day, when it is warm, the sap flows up from the roots of the tree to the branches, carrying sugar stored in the roots to supply nutrients and water to the buds that will soon burst forth as new leaves.

It would be a one-way trip for the sap if it were not for below-freezing temperatures at night. As night begins, the sap starts to freeze in the very fine branches starting at the top of the tree, and the freezing progresses downward through larger branches and the trunk of the tree over night. Because ice occupies a larger volume than water, the freezing of the sap forces the liquid back down the stem of the tree. It is this repeated freezing and thawing of the sap that allows it to flow up and down the tree and into our waiting pails.

On sunny warm spring days, my daughter and I race home after work/school with excitement. To encouraging words of “mush!” I pull the toboggan out to the trees. She holds a five-gallon water pail and a big funnel. It’s a bit like an Easter egg hunt for her; she visits every tree to see what Mother Nature and the weather have given us. On a good day, the buckets will be brimming full with as much as two gallons per tap. My daughter likes those days because it means lots of toboggan rides from the trees to the large 55-gallon plastic drum I use to store the sap: “Mush, Mush!” she says.

When the weather is good, we will fill the drum in two or three days and start filling a second drum. With a little luck, by the weekend we will have collected one or two drums of sap, and it is time to make syrup. In late winter, I will have put my homemade evaporator in place. It is a 200-gallon oil tank, laid on its side, which sits on top of cement blocks, with an improvised chimney and door making a wood stove suitable for the job. Fire wardens everywhere should relax at this point; the evaporator sits outside, in my driveway, surrounded by snowbanks. (Don’t try to make maple syrup indoors. The volume of slightly sticky water that goes into the air during the evaporation process could ruin your house).

I fill the stove with wood, place my evaporation pan on top of the stove (it’s a big pan three feet wide, six feet long, eight inches deep), and pour about 20 gallons of sap into the pan. The next 10 hours as the air is filled with the smell of wood smoke and sugar. While more sap is added to the pan and wood to the fire, while we partake in snowball fights, toboggan rides and general mischief in the backyard..
Somehow through all of that chaos, the 55 gallons of sap is added to the pan, and through constant boiling, excess water is driven off until about 5 gallons of very sweet, brown liquid remains. But it’s not syrup yet. The concentrate is transferred (and filtered) into a series of smaller pans, and boiling continues, until about 1.5 gallons of liquid remains.

At this point, the snowball fights come to a stop, and close attention must be paid to the job. As the sap approaches the point of becoming syrup, it foams easily, and the pot can boil over, ruining 10 hours of effort. While it’s possible to judge the formation of the syrup by feel, I use a candy thermometer to be certain. Water boils at 212 degrees F, but because of the sugar in the sap, the boiling point of sap is higher, about 219 degrees (give or take a little, depending on how thick you like it).

So, with careful stirring and constant checks of the thermometer, the boiling of the sap continues, until I say, “what do you think Dayna?” At which point she says “It’s done!”

The finished maple syrup is taken to the kitchen, and filtered one last time as about six one-litre bottles are filled with the product of our efforts. The sweet smell of syrup lies heavy in the air of the whole house as we head off to sleep for the night. I’m sure my daughter will dream about a stack of pancakes and fresh syrup for breakfast. Spring is a wonderful season when you live among the sugar maples.

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